Prevalence of Molar HYPOMINERALISATION

Popularly termed 'chalky molars', Molar Hypomineralisation is both a worldwide problem and the commonest type of D3. All studies show a disturbingly high prevalence in 6-year molars – generally 6% or more of the otherwise healthy childhood population is affected and the average prevalence across all reports is 15% (i.e. about 1-in-6 kids).  While the majority of studies come from Europe, the prevalence is equally high elsewhere as depicted on the map below (touch the top of each pin to reveal details).

 

Most data are for 7–12 year old children who will carry the liabilities of Molar Hypomineralisation for the rest of their lives. Given this high prevalence and life-long burden, Molar Hypomineralisation clearly merits increased attention as a global concern for public health. See also the projected global incidence of Molar Hypomineralisation, which strongly reinforces our concerns.

Prevalence studies for hypomineralised 6-year molars

Main Map Sweden Denmark Spain Uk New Zealand Sydney Perth Kenya india HongKong Libya Brazil Netherlands Finland Germany Italy lithuania Bosnia Greece Bulgaria Turkey Jordan Iraq Argentina Uruguay Nigeria Saudi Arabia Nepal China Thailand Singapore Iran Slovenia Mexico Malaysia Austria Norway TOUCH THE TOP OF EACH PIN TO REVEAL DETAILS


For further reference, the prevalence studies for 6-year molars and equivalent data for 2-year molars are graphed and tabulated below. In the graphs you can readily see the range and distribution of prevalence values for both types of molar, and that hypomineralised 6-year molars are about twice as common as hypomineralised 2-year molars. In the tables, you can also see the variations, both between studies in different countries and between those within the same country. It is noteworthy that the reports for 6-year molars extend back to 1987, at which time the prevalence reported for Sweden was similar to today's global average. Caution should be applied when making detailed comparisons because not all studies were conducted equivalently – e.g. some involve much larger datasets than
others, and variations exist for the diagnostic criteria used and the population types studied. Given such imprecision, we have rounded the reported prevalence values to whole numbers.

Prevalence of Molar Hypomineralisation graph in 6 year olds and 2 year olds

PREVALENCE STUDIES FOR 6-YEAR MOLARS

Region/Country Prevalence Report
Oceania    
Australia
Perth
22% Arrow, 2008 Prevalence of developmental enamel defects of the first permanent molars among school children in Western Australia.
Sydney 44% Balmer et al, 2005 Prevalence of enamel defects and MIH in non-fluoridated and fluoridated communities.
New Zealand
Wellington
15% Mahoney & Morrison, 2009 The prevalence of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in Wainuiomata children.
Wellington 19% Mahoney & Morrison, 2011 Further examination of the prevalence of MIH in the Wellington region.
Europe    
Sweden
Jönköping
10% Koch et al, 1987 Epidemiologic study of idiopathic enamel hypomineralization in permanent teeth of Swedish children.
Kållered & Mölndal 18% Jalevik et al 2001 The prevalence of demarcated opacities in permanent first molars in a group of Swedish children.
Malmo 16% Brogardh-Roth et al, 2011 Molar-incisor hypomineralization and oral hygiene in 10- to-12-yr-old Swedish children born preterm.
Finland
Helsinki & Kuopio
17% Alaluusua et al, 1996 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via mother’s milk may cause developmental defects in the child’s teeth.
Vantaa 25% Alaluusua et al, 1996 Developmental dental defects associated with long breast feeding.
Helsinki 19% Leppaniemi et al, 2001 Nonfluoride hypomineralizations in the permanent first molars and their impact on the treatment need.
Lammi, Jalasjarvi, Helsinki, Oulu, Lappeenranta 17% Wuollet et al, 2014 Background factors of molar-incisor hypomineralization in a group of Finnish children.
Lammi, Jalasjarvi 12% Wuollet et al, 2016 Molar-incisor hypomineralization and the association with childhood illnesses and antibiotics in a group of Finnish children.
Netherlands
Alphen aan de Rijnland, Gouda, Breda and Den Bosch
10% Weerheijm et al, 2001 Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children.
Alphen aan de Rijnland, Gouda, Breda, Den Bosch 15% Jasulaityte et al, 2008 Prevalence of molar-incisor-hypomineralisation among children participating in the Dutch National Epidemiological Survey (2003).
Rotterdam 9% Elfrink et al, 2012 Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.
United Kingdom
Leeds
15% Zagdwon et al, 2002 The prevalence of developmental enamel defects in permanent molars in a group of English school children.
Leeds 40% Balmer et al, 2005 Prevalence of enamel defects and MIH in non-fluoridated and fluoridated communities.
Northern England 16% Balmer et al 2012 The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation in Northern England and its relationship to socioeconomic status and water fluoridation.
Germany
Dresden
6% Dietrich et al, 2003 Molar incisor hypomineralisation in a group of children and adolescents living in Dresden (Germany).
Giessen 6% Preusser et al, 2007 Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in a region of Germany – a brief communication.
Munich 14% Kohlboeck et al, 2013 Is there a relationship between hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and poor oral health? Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus study. 
Greifswald, Heidelberg, Dusseldorf, Hamburg 10% Petrou et al, 2014 Prevalence of Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation among school children in four German cities. 
Italy
Lissone
14% Calderara et al, 2005 The prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in a group of Italian school children.
Rome 7% Condo R et al, 2012  MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient.
Spain
Catalonia
18% Gomez et al, 2011 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralisation observed using transillumination in a group of children from Barcelona (Spain).
Barcelona  18% Martinez Gomez et al, 2012 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralisation observed using transillumination in a group of children from Barcelona (Spain). 
Valencia 22% Garcia-Margarit et al, 2013  Epidemiologic study of molar-incisor hypomineralization in 8-year-old Spanish children.
Valencia 24% Negre-Barber et al, 2016  Hypomineralized second primary molars as predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.
Lithuania
Kaunas
10% Jasulaityte et al 2007 Molar incisor hypomineralization: review and prevalence data from the study of primary school children in Kaunas/Lithuania.
Bosnia & Herzegovina
9 communities
12% Muratbegovitz et al, 2007 Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation impact on developmental defects of enamel prevalence in a low fluoridated area.
Foca 13% Jankovic et al, 2014 Distribution and characteristics of molar-incisor hypomineralization.
Kljuc 12% Mulic et al, 2017 How serious is molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among 8- and 9-year-old children in Bosnia-Herzegovina? A clinical study.
Bulgaria
Plovdiv
5% Kukleva et al, 2008 Molar incisor hypomineralisation in 7-to-14-year old children in Plovdiv, Bulgaria—an epidemiologic study.
Greece
Athens
10% Lygidakis et al, 2008 Molar-incisor-hypomineralisatoin (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics.
Thessaloniki, Ptolemaida, Ioannina 21% Kevrekidou et al, 2015 Molar incisor hypomineralization of eight- and 14-year-old children: prevalence, severity, and defect characteristics.
Denmark
North Jutland County
38% Wogelius et al, 2008 Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 6 to 8-year-old Danish children.
Turkey
Istanbul
15% Kusku et al, 2008 The prevalence and aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation in a group of children in Istanbul.
Kocaeli & Canakkale 9% Kusku et al, 2009 The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of children in a highly polluted urban region and a windfarm-green energy island.
Ankara 8% Sonmez et al, 2013 Putative factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralisation: an epidemiological study.
3 regions 21% Groselj & Jan, 2013 Molar incisor hypomineralisation and dental caries among children in Slovenia.
Tromso, Balsfjord 14% Schmalfuss et al, 2016 Canines are affected in 16-year-olds with molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH): an epidemiological study based on the Tromso study "Fit Futures".
Graz 7% Buchgraber et al, 2017 Molar incisor hypomineralization: proportion and severity in primary public school children in Graz, Austria.
Asia    
Hong Kong 3% Cho et al, 2008 Molar incisor hypomineralization in Hong Kong Chinese children.
Iraq
Mosul City
19% Ghanim et al, 2011 Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and defect characteristics in Iraqi children.
Jordan
Amman, Irbid, Al-Karak
18% Zawaideh et al, 2011 Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence in Jordanian children and clinical characteristics.
India
Gandhinagar
9% Parikh et al, 2012 Prevalence and characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in the child population residing in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
Chandigarh 6% Mittal et al, 2014 Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and clinical presentation in school children of the northern region of India.
Udaipur 10% Bhaskar et al, 2014 Molar-incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India.
Guatam Budh Nagar 7% Mittal & Sharma 2015 Hypomineralised second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and possible association with molar incisor hypomineralisation in Indian children.
Tamilnadu 8% Krishnan et al, 2015 Prevalence and characteristics of MIH in school children residing in an endemic fluorosis area of India: an epidemiological study.
Davangere 9% Kirthiga et al 2015 Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere.
Bengaluru 2% Subramaniam et al, 2016 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in 7–9-year-old children of Bengaluru city, India.
Uttar Pradesh 14% Mishra & Pandey 2016 Molar incisor hypomineralization: an epidemiological study with prevalence and etiological factorss in Indian paediatric population.
Nagpur 7% Mittal et al, 2016 Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar.
Iran
Zahedan
13% Ahmadi et al, 2012 Molar incisor hypomineralization: a study of prevalence and etiology in a group of Iranian children. 
Shiraz 20% Ghanim et al, 2014 Molar-incisor hypomineralisation: a prevalence study amongst primary schoolchildren of Shiraz, Iran.
Guilan 18% Salem et al, 2016 Prevalence and predictors of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among rural children in northern Iran.
China
Wenzhou
 26% Li & Li 2012  Investigation of molar-incisor hypomineralization among children from 6 to 11 years in Lucheng District, Wenzhou City. 
Saudi Arabia
Jeddah
9% Allazzam et al, 2014 Molar incisor hypomineralization, prevalence, and etiology.
All 4 quarters 10% Ng et al, 2015 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Singaporean children.
Thailand
Muang district
28% Pitiphat et al, 2014 Factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization in Thai children.
Kranuan district 21% Pitiphat et al, 2014 Molar incisor hypomineralization and dental caries in six- to seven-year-old Thai children.
Kavre 14% Shresthra et al, 2014 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation among school children in Kavre.
Shah Alam 17% Hussain et al, 2015 Distribution of molar incisor hypomineralization in Malaysian children attending university dental clinic.
Africa    
Libya
Benghazi
3% Fteita et al, 2006 Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of school-aged children in Benghazi, Libya.
Kenya
Matungulu & Kangundo
14% Kemoli, 2008 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation in six to eight year-olds in two rural divisions in Kenya.
Nigeria
Ile-Ife
 18% Oyedele et al, 2015 Prevalence, pattern and severity of molar incisor hypomineralisation in 8- to 10-year-old school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Ile-Ife  10% Temilola et al, 2015 The prevalence and pattern of deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar-incisor hypomineralization in children from a suburban population in Nigeria.
Ile-Ife  13% Oyedele et al, 2015 Co-morbidities associated with molar-incisor hypomineralisation in 8 to 16 year old pupils in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Americas    
Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
40% Soviero et al, 2009 Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities and their sequelae in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 7 to 13-year-old Brazilian children.
Botelhos 20% Da Costa-Silva et al, 2010 Molar incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical consequences in Brazilian children. 
Araraquara 12% Jeremias et al, 2013 Dental caries experience and Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization
Botelhos 17% Costa-Silva et al, 2013 Influence of deciduous molar hypomineralization on the development of molar-incisor hypomineralization.
Teresina 18% de Lima et al, 2015 Epidemiologic study of molar-incisor hypomineralization in schoolchildren in north-eastern Brazil.
Lavras 20% Tourino et al, 2016 Association between molar incisor hypomineralization in schoolchildren and both prenatal and postnatal factors: a population-based study.
Argentina
Buenos Aires
16% Biondi et al, 2011 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in the city of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires 6% Biondi et al, 2012 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la Republica (Uruguay).
Montevideo 7% Biondi et al, 2012 Prevalence of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children seeking dental care at the Schools of Dentistry of the University of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and University of la Republica (Uruguay).
Mexico City 16% Gurrusquieta et al, 2017 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in Mexican children.
Average prevalence 15% (for 79 studies from 36 countries)

NB: Authors – please advise us of new studies suitable for inclusion here.

PREVALENCE STUDIES FOR 2-YEAR MOLARS

Region/Country Prevalence Report
Oceania    
Australia
Melbourne
14% Owen et al, 2018 Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and relationship with dental caries in Melbourne preschool children.
Europe    
Netherlands
Alphen aan de Rijnland, Gouda, Breda and Den Bosch
5% Elfrink et al, 2008 Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds.
Rotterdam 9% Elfrink et al, 2012 Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.
Germany
Munich
4% Kuhnisch et al, 2014 Proportion and extent of manifestation of molar-incisor-hypomineralizations according to different phenotypes.
Spain
Valencia
15% Negre-Barber et al, 2016 Hypomineralized second primary molars as predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.
Asia    
Iraq
Mosul City
7% Ghanim et al, 2013 Prevalence of demarcated hypomineralisation defects in second primary molars in Iraqi children.
India
Guatam Budh Nagar
6% Mittal & Sharma 2015 Hypomineralised second primary molars: prevalence, defect characteristics and possible association with molar incisor hypomineralisation in Indian children.
Nagpur 5% Mittal et al, 2016 Assessment of association between molar incisor hypomineralization and hypomineralized second primary molar.
Singapore
All 4 quarters
3% Ng et al, 2015 Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Singaporean children.
Africa    
Nigeria
Ile-Ife
5% Temilola et al, 2015 The prevalence and pattern of deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar-incisor hypomineralization in children from a suburban population in Nigeria.
Ile-Ife 6% Oyedele et al, 2016 Hypomineralised second primary molars: prevalence, pattern and associated co-morbidities in 8- to 10-year-old children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Americas    
Brazil
Botelhos
20% Costa-Silva et al, 2013 Influence of deciduous molar hypomineralization on the development of molar-incisor hypomineralization.
Average prevalence 8% (for 12 studies from 9 countries)

NB: Authors – please advise us of new studies suitable for inclusion here.